# Casino Games and Mathematics – Part 1

Can the knowledge of mathematics help a gambler to win?

One can often hear the best piece of advice given by a mathematician to a lover of gambling games is the assertion that lies in the best strategy of gambling games in terms of the complete abstention of them. A lot of mathematicians consider that the most probable and theoretical games that a gambler can follow are the strategies that he will lose a lot.

Is it difficult to predict if the American mathematician Edward Thorp shared this view, when he spent a winter vacation in Las-Vegas, where he entered a casino and decided to try his luck at twenty-one of the game’s? As it turned out, “Dame Fortune” was extremely link nhà cái unkind to him. What we do not know for sure is the amount of money this teacher of mathematics has lost in the 50-s of the end of the winter night that American universities lost, however, judging by the following. events the amount was not small. Otherwise, how can we account for the fact that the game has become an optimal strategy for a number of years with an “idte fixe” of our hero. Besides, the matter was not the only one in which the quantity of money was lost by the mathematician. Perhaps, Thorp was simply an extremely venturesome person, and his pride was a gambler and an expert-mathematician. Besides, he could suspect a croupier of dishonesty, since, as he had, the cards were not shuffled after each game. Thoughts, the game itself did not make him very uneasy. However, afterwards, having visited casinos with a number of times, the rules of the prescribed obligatory shuffling of cards after each game, so it was difficult to accuse a croupier of anything. Anyway, he managed to develop a winning strategy in game twenty-one.

Among other things, this strategy was based on the same very aspect that a defeated mathematician had on his guard – cards were not shuffled too often. At that, this is, as a rule, not done because of some evil design, but in order to avoid, so to say, unnecessary slowdowns in the game. The Thorp EO Beat the Dealer, a game of twenty-one for a winning strategy – New York: Blaisdell, 1962. of Nevada essentially change the rules of the game twenty-one. But let’s not ride before the hounds.

Twenty-one of those game rules with accordance are two cards of one time grouper dealt gamblers, each consisting of 52 cards consisting of a thoroughly shuffled pack. The Gamblers themselves did not show their cards to a potential croupier. At the same time, two gamblers to take out the two cards of the same time, the official one of the casino shows. Gamblers evaluate their cards according to the following scale. Jacks, queens and kings have a value equal to 10 points, an ace could be assigned 1 point or 11 points, the value of the rest of the cards coincided with their numerical value (eights had 8 points, nines took 9, and etc ). That gambler was considered a winner who had a hand on the cards with a sum of 21 points from the bottom. At that time, every gambler (including a croupier) had a right to take a pack or put it in a simpler, take a “widow”, any amount of cards. However, if, as a result, a widow after the total number of points, will exceed 21 points then a gambler must drop a game showing his cards.

Special rules were established with regard to stakes. Initially, the upper and lower bounds were set, and every gambler had his position of evaluation based on a specific stake (within these bounds) of the right choice. If, as a result, it turned out that the rules of the game with a casino’s visitor had a “better” number of points on hand than a croupier, he would have made a share of the gain , this gambler lost his share. In the case of an equal number of points, a gambler and a croupier, the game ended in peace, which is the result of the game being considered “harmless” for both a gambler and a casino.

Let’s point out that ordinary gamblers are not a grouper who are obliged to open their cards in case of a number of points in these cards exceeds 21. Moreover, after all the gamblers have opened their cards, and therefore, all the stakes go to a Casino gamblers cannot practically find out what a croupier is, in order to build their game strategy to the next game (whether to risk or not to stand pat, and etc). It goes without saying, it gives a croupier greater advantages. Besides, all the gamblers are surely aware of this, and, … continue to play. Nothing can be done about it, who does not take risks, as is known, does not win.